Monday, December 9, 2019
Applied Theories for Critique of Political Economy -myassignmenthelp
Question: Discuss about th Applied Theories for Critique of Political Economy. Answer: Introduction The discussion for the following essay is the Marxs account of history. Karl Marx has been one of the greatest political figures and reformers and philosophers who through his works have revolutionized the Russian and world history at the same time. At the Karl Marx, the world needed a world of history and he knew he had to provide it because he understood the problems within the world and the revolutionaries (Samuel 2016). In this context, Karl Marx had brought out his new theory of History in his preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy in the year 1859. New theory of history The topics Marx had chosen to deal with were related to the social class and the relation with the people by means of production. He described that men had to enter into social relations which are definite. These relations are created in relation to the social production. The economic structure of the society is built around the totality of the relations of production. These things are very much relevant when one discusses about the social relations and its connectivity with history (Resnick and Richard 2013). The production that the material life gives is in close relation with the social, political and intellectual lives of the human beings. Marx had also asserted the fact of the importance of psychological consciousness in the lives of the human beings. The people can understand about these things in the context of the social class only (Resnick and Richard 2013). Marx has discussed that historical change in the society can only occur in the context of the conflict and contradiction among the social people and their relations (Ritzer and Jeffrey 2017). Marx had depicted in his description that at a certain time of the development, the material production forces meet with conflicts and contradictions with the society on the basis of the current relations regarding to the productions. The era of the social revolution begins at a time when the relations with the productive forces of the society turn to their fetters (Ritzer and Jeffrey 2017) Importance of psychology and economics There is a huge importance of psychology and economics in the context of the social history and its change (Rabin 2013). Marx has described that when one studies about the social and moral transformations, one should always keep in mind the distinction between the material transformations of the economic conditions of production. There are several parameters that can identify these economic conditions like legal, political, religious, artistic and philosophic regimes. The social change becomes clear when the people become conscious of those conflicts and they fight to establish their own viewpoints. These economic changes gradually lead to the overall transformation of the overall infrastructure of the society (Rabin 2013). Marx has said time and again that the economics should not be neglected in these issues because he has spent a large time of his life in the British Library while collecting the economic data about the social changes that influence the historical changes as well. He exclaimed that any of the social orders cannot be destroyed if the productive sources in the society have been properly developed (Bloch 2013). He said that new superior relations could be developed in the social changes in the historical contexts. However, the older relations regarding to production cannot be replaced by the newer ones in terms of production. The nature of the mankind is to set such tasks that can be done only. It has b3en found in this context that the problems can be arisen only when the material solutions for the problematic condition will be present (Bloch 2013). The rise of Capitalism It has been argued by Marx that the capitalism can do much harm to the society while it can bring in new changes as well (Acemoglu and James 2015). He has considered that after socialism, the capitalism is at the advent of emerging as the new controlling system in the society and has the ability of influencing the society at a larger level. The revolutionary transformation into socialism is at the horizon with the advent of capitalism (Acemoglu and James 2015). Karl Marx has also asserted the fact that the several ideologies like Asiatic, ancient, feudal and the modern bourgeois classes have shown several ways to amend the social conditions by a huge rate and pushing the economic development of the society. He described the mode the bourgeois class followed over the years for production in the social context was an antagonistic one. This antagonistic view is not the kind of individual antagonism but it is the one that rises from the individual social condition existence of the human beings. The contradictory part in this is that the fact that productive forces that are developed within the bourgeois society also sets up the material conditions for the solution of antagonism (Debord 2012). Stages of history In his writings, Karl Marx has shown the several things in the depiction of history in the context of social revolution. He had exclaimed at the beginning of the each stage a new class would be born in the society and this would bring a downfall for the society (Berlin 2013). However, this downfall cannot be depicted as something negative but it should gain the mankind a huge share of benefit in the progress of it. These things or especially the changes would bring in class conflicts among the people (Berlin 2013). In the first stage (primitive communism) there are three aspects such as shared property, hunting and gathering and proto-democracy. In the second stage (slave society) the social production aspects are related to class, statism, agriculture, democracy and authoritarianism and private property. The third stage is called the feudalism where the most important aspects are aristocracy, theocracy, hereditary classes and nation-state (Berlin 2013). Conclusion This essay can be concluded by saying that Karl Marx has depicted several social perspectives related to history and he has showcased the initial stages of change of the social history. The social history is very much subject to change and the different stages are there through which the transformations take place. These various aspects are very much important to connect the changes in social history so the theory of history of Karl Marx is extremely important in this regard as well. References Acemoglu, Daron, and James A. Robinson. 2015 "The rise and decline of general laws of capitalism."The Journal of Economic Perspectives29, no. 1 (2015): 3-28. Berlin, Isaiah. 2013Karl Marx. Princeton University Press. Bloch, Maurice. 2013.Marxism and anthropology: the history of a relationship. Routledge. Debord, Guy. 2012.Society of the Spectacle. Bread and Circuses Publishing. Rabin, Matthew. 2013 "An approach to incorporating psychology into economics."The American Economic Review103, no. 3 (2013): 617-622. Resnick, Stephen A., and Richard D. Wolff. 2013. Class theory and history: Capitalism and communism in the USSR. Routledge. Ritzer, George, and Jeffrey Stepnisky. 2017Modern sociological theory. SAGE Publications. Samuel, Raphael, 2016 ed.People's History and Socialist Theory (Routledge Revivals). Routledge.